The possible solutions for poverty clearly depend on what is chiefly causing it, and this can clearly vary with time and with a place. At this early 21st century time the main poverty differences are between majority poverty as in poor countries like Cambodia, and minority poverty in rich countries like the USA and Britain. None of it may be easy to solve and the long history of anti-poverty measures has often been of failure, but successful action on poverty reduction is really possible to cut the large numbers of people who are still living in poverty
There is, unfortunately, today still many very poor countries especially in Africa, Asia and South America where the majority of their populations still now suffer absolute poverty. For such countries where the poor are a majority, the first requirement is to convince the richer countries that they will benefit by abolishing poverty worldwide. Unfortunately, most of the richer countries may have wrongly come to actually liking having poor countries and to believing quite incorrectly that having poor countries benefits richer countries economically.
But having poor countries is not a real economic benefit to anybody, and it chiefly encourages low productivity in the richer countries by their employing or exploiting in the lowest wage poor countries. There is also no doubt that accepting having poor countries involves world fractures causing wars and other serious problems that our world would really be much better without. Accepting having poor countries can only encourage international badness rather than goodness, and it encourages accepting poverty within richer countries. The richer countries really need better education on this.
If richer countries can be taught correctly the real problems of accepting poverty, then it is in principle a relatively simple matter for governments of rich and poor countries together to gradually end poverty worldwide with improving international trade terms and international government and charity aid systems. And lower-level universal right welfare systems could also work well in many poorer countries, along with the lines noted below for richer countries.
But richer governments and charities actually choose which poor countries to help, usually giving no help to those poor countries whose governments are considered ‘unfriendly’, and they also choose how to help. Giving food is often prioritised, and in some immediate crises this is essential – but food aid alone may not reduce poverty at all in the longer term. And some ‘help’ can actually involve rich countries exploiting poor countries. Richer countries governments and charities who want to help poorer countries really need to more closely study the actual needs of each poor country.
Increasingly many poorer countries are getting better at helping themselves emerge from poverty especially by prioritising education. Hence some poor countries are at last catching up in innovation and science.